What is Asthma?Asthma is a chronic lung disease, which cannot be cured, yet can be well-controlled with close follow-up with a physician and appropriate medical therapies. In people with asthma, lung airways become inflamed, leading to narrowing of the airways. The muscles around the airways become more sensitive, and can react to allergens and irritants. Asthma can be a life-threatening disease, and there are typically a few thousand deaths in the United States every year as a result of this disease.
What are the Symptoms of Asthma?The most common symptoms of asthma include wheezing (a high-pitched squeaking sound occurring during breathing in and out), a sensation of chest tightness or heaviness, a sense of not getting enough air, and coughing. Not all people with asthma will have all of these symptoms. Many people with asthma may only have a cough – this type is termed “cough-variant asthma”.
What Happens During an Asthma Attack?In a person with asthma, the lining of the airways is swollen and produces more mucus than normal. This can lead to the muscles around the outside of the airways to constrict and narrow the airways. Air has a more difficult time getting in and out of the lungs, which causes the symptoms of asthma.
What Causes Asthma?Like allergies, the tendency to develop asthma runs in families. If a person has a mother with asthma, or the mother smoked during the pregnancy, then that person has a higher risk for asthma. People with allergic rhinitis have about a 1 in 4 chance of developing asthma.
Some types of respiratory tract infections, especially if occurring during infancy, place a person at increased risk of developing asthma. Environmental triggers, including allergens and other irritants, can influence the development of asthma. There is probably not a single cause for asthma, but rather an interaction between a person’s genetic makeup and environmental triggers.
What Triggers Asthma?The most common trigger of asthma is a respiratory tract infection. In adults, it is the common cold virus. In children, RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) is the common culprit.
Other common triggers include allergens and irritants. The most common allergens include environmental allergens such as pollens, animal dander, dust mite and molds. Food allergies may also trigger asthma symptoms, and may lead to anaphylaxis. Irritants, such as smoke and strong odors, can also trigger asthma symptoms.
The majority of people with asthma will have symptoms worsen with exercise and strenuous activity. However, the term “exercise-induced asthma” is overused and usually applies only to a small group of asthmatics.
Strong emotions, such as laughing and crying, as well as emotional stress, can also trigger the symptoms of asthma.
How is Asthma Controlled?One of the most important aspects of controlling asthma is the ability to recognize when asthma is just starting to get worse, and treating these symptoms. Therefore, it is also important to know which asthma medication to use at the right time. Early treatment of an asthma attack usually resolves the problem and prevents asthma from continuing to get worse. An asthmatic should also notify his or her doctor if their asthma symptoms are starting to worsen.
Avoidance of allergic triggers (such as dust mites, pet dander and mold) as well as irritants (such as cigarette smoke, strong odors) can prevent worsening asthma symptoms in those people sensitive to these allergens. And, since the nose and lungs are both part of the respiratory tract, good control of allergic rhinitis will help to control asthma symptoms.
What are the Goals of Asthma Treatment?The goals of asthma treatment are for an asthmatic to essentially be able to live as if they did not have asthma. These include:
To be active in sports and exercise with minimal to no asthma symptoms
To avoid severe asthma attacks that lead to emergency room visits and hospital stays
To sleep through the night without asthma symptoms
To have normal lung function as measured in the doctor’s office
To avoid side effects from asthma medications
Remember, these are goals, and many asthmatics may never achieve these. However, with close follow-up with a physician, or with a referral to an asthma expert (such as an allergist), and if a person follows the directions of the physician, these goals should be able to be achieved.